What causes a superinfection?
Superinfection is the process by which a cell that has previously been infected by one virus gets co-infected with a different strain of the virus, or another virus, at a later point in time. Viral superinfections may be resistant to the antiviral drug or drugs that were being used to treat the original infection.
What causes antibiotic related Superinfections?
The microorganisms most frequently implicated in the development of superinfection were: Candida spp. (42.3%), Enterococcus spp. (18.8%), enterobacteria (13.8%), Staphylococcus spp. (9.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.6%), and Clostridium difficile (4.1%).
What is superinfection and examples?
The definition of a superinfection is an additional infection that happens during or immediately after an existing infection. An example of a superinfection is having an ear infection caused by microorganisms which are resistent to the antibiotics taken for a recent throat infection.
How do you treat a superinfection?
Therapy. Patients with measles should be given supportive therapy, such as antipyretics and fluids as indicated. Bacterial superinfection should be promptly treated with appropriate antimicrobials, but prophylactic antibiotics to prevent superinfection are of no known value and are therefore not recommended.
What is the most common superinfection?
The most common superinfections following cefotaxime treatment were with Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp. and fungi.
How does antibiotic resistance affect humans?
Bacteria, not humans or animals, become antibiotic-resistant. These bacteria may infect humans and animals, and the infections they cause are harder to treat than those caused by non-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic resistance leads to higher medical costs, prolonged hospital stays, and increased mortality.
What is a superinfection and how does one arise?
A superinfection develops when the antibacterial intended for the preexisting infection kills the protective microbiota, allowing another pathogen resistant to the antibacterial to proliferate and cause a secondary infection (Figure 1).
Which medication is associated with risk for superinfection?
difficile infection is strongly associated with antibiotic treatment, especially antibiotics that kills many different types of bacteria (for example fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins).
Do broad spectrum antibiotics cause Superinfections?
The predominant microorganisms that may cause clinical superinfections to develop following therapy with broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics include enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, other Pseudomonas spp. and fungi.
What does cross resistance mean?
Cross Resistance Speaker. Resistance to one or more drugs that occurs as a result of previous exposure to a similar drug.
What is a mixed infection?
In clinical bacteriology what we usually mean by a mixed infection is where a single infection is caused by a variety of bacterial species which are simultaneous causing the same infection. For example: peritonitis cased by all kinds of different gut bacteria and yeasts.
What is superinfection immunity?
Superinfection immunity is a means by which prophage-generated bacterial lysogens can resist infection by homoimmune temperate phages.
What bacteria causes superinfection?
A common cause of severe influenza pathogenesis is superinfection with bacterial pathogens, namely, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
What is the strongest antibiotic for bacterial infection?
Drugs Used to Treat Bacterial InfectionDrug nameRx / OTCPregFlagylRxBGeneric name: metronidazole systemic Drug class: amebicides, miscellaneous antibiotics For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing InformationAugmentinRxB